SCOPE 5 - Environmental Impact Assessment

APPENDIX 4

An Annotated Bibliography

 

A4.1 EIA procedures in different countries

A4.2 Impact assessment methodologies

A4.3 Methods for estimating socio-economic impacts

A4.4 Methods for performing engineering design calculations to meet environmental standards

A4.5 Bibliographies

  

 

PREAMBLE 

This bibliography is subdivided according to the following four subject headings: 

A4.1 EIA procedures in different countries; 

A4.2 Impact assessment methodologies; 

A4.3 Methods for estimating socio-economic impacts; 

A4.4 Methods for performing engineering design calculations to meet environmental standards; 

A4.4.a: air pollution 
A4.4.b: water pollution 
A4.4.c: solid waste disposal 
A4.4.d: noise 
A4.4.e: irrigation, flood control, large dams 

A4.5 Bibliographies 

Cross-references are given where appropriate. Only readily accessible reports have been listed . 

A4.1 EIA PROCEDURES IN DIFFERENT COUNTRIES 

A4.1.1 See Appendix 2, this volume, for descriptions of EIA procedures in Australia, Canada, Japan, UK, USA, and East Europe.

A4.1.2 Delogu, O. E., United States Experience with the Preparation and Analysis of Environmental Impact Statements: the National Environmental Policy Act, IUCN Env. Policy and Law Paper No.7, IUCN, 1110 Morges, Switzerland, 162 pp. (1974). 

The Table of Contents is as follows: 

Part I -Understanding NEPA -Its Limitations and Possible Extensions

1. Background and Introduction 
2. What NEPA-Like or Impact Statement legislation Must Minimally Include
3. NEPA-Like or Impact Statement Legislation Beyond the Minimum. 
4. Conclusions 

Part II- Avoiding Some Specific Problems 

5. Introduction 
6. Projects and Actions Subject to -and Exempt from the Act 
7. What is Meant by 'Federal Action'. 
8. Review of Agency Decisions Not to Prepare an Impact Statement and of the Adequacy of Statements Prepared 
9. Who Prepares the Impact Statement 
10. 'Timing' in Impact Statement Preparation 
11. Dea1ing with 'Cumulative' and 'Secondary' Effects in Impact Statement Preparation 
12. Status of Projects 'Underway' at the Time NEPA-Like Legislation is Enacted 
13. Developing Objective Decision-Making Tools Capable of Dealing with Environmental Factors (Input-Output, Cost-Benefit, Matrix Systems) 
14. Public Participation in Impact Statement Review and Commenting Processes 

A4.1.3 Clark, M., The Environmental Impact Statement as an Aid to Tasmanian Developers, Env. Studies, Occasional Paper 2, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia, 49 pp. (1976). 

The Table of Contents is as follows: 

1. Environmental Protection and Development 
2. Methods for the Preparation of Environmental Impact Statements 
3. Legal Implications to be Taken into Account in the Preparation of an Impact Statement 
4. The Statutory Process for Obtaining Approval for a Proposed Development 
5. Legal Implications of Potential Environmental Pollution and Nuisance 
6. Benefits of Environmental Impact statements 

A4.1.4 Canter, L. W., Environmental Impact Assessment McGraw-Hill: New York. 331 pp. (1977). 

The Table of Contents is as follows: 

1. National Environmental Policy Act and Its Implementation 
2. Framework for Environmental Assessment 
3. Description of the Environmental Setting 
4. Prediction and Assessment of Impacts on the Air Environment 
5. Prediction and Assessment of Impacts on the Water Environment 
6. Prediction and Assessment of Impacts on the Noise Environment 
7. Prediction and Assessment of Impacts on the Biological Environment 
8. Prediction and Assessment of Impacts on the Cultural Environment 
9. Prediction and Assessment of Impacts on the Socio-economic Environment 
10. Methods of Impact Analysis
11. Public Participation in Environmental Decision Making 
12. Practical Considerations in Writing Impact Statements 
13. Future of Environmental Impact Assessment 

A4.1.5 Wheeler, E. F. F. (Ed.), Impact Assessment. Search 7, 231-274 (1976) (Science House, 157 Gloucester St., Sydney, Australia). 

This issue of Search is devoted to Impact Assessment, and contains the following articles: 

Principles of Environmental Impact Assessment, B. T. Hart and P. Cullen 
Environmental Impact Assessment and the Law, P. Ryan 
Environmental Problems: Environmental Impact Statements and Economic Analysis, P. Abelson 
Project Development and the Social Environment, R. King 
A Developer's View of Environmental Impact Assessment, V. E. Jennings 
A Consultant's View of Environmental Impact Statements in Australia, A. Spry 
Consultants, Clients and the Community in EIS Preparation, G. A. Brown 
Environmental Assessment in Victoria, W. P. Dunk 
Environmental Impact Statements and a 'Push Me-Pull You' Approach, B. J. O'Brien 
Environmental Impact Assessment and Conservation in Australia, J. G. Mosley 
Environmental Impact Assessment: Summary and Prospects, F. Talbot 

A4.1.6 CEQ, Environmental Impact Statements: an Analysis of Six Years' Experience by Seventy Federal Agencies, Council on Environmental Quality, Washington, D.C., USA, 103 pp. (1976). 

This report assesses federal implementation of the environmental impact statement requirement of the National Environmental Policy Act. The report asks how well the requirement fulfils its purpose of helping government officials reach informed decisions. It considers whether the content and quality of impact statements are adequate; whether complaints about delay from EIS procedures are justified; what purposes may be served by preparing impact statements on broad government programmes or groups of projects; whether EIS review by state as well as federal agencies is working well or is in need of improvement; and whether public involvement in the whole process is satisfactory. It also examines some other special questions arising from the EIS requirement. 

The report recommends actions for CEQ and the agencies to improve the performance of impact statements and to enhance their value in decision-making. 

A4.1.7 Plewes, M. and Whitney, J. B. R., Environmental Impact Assessment in Canada: Processes and Approaches, Pub. No. EE-5, Inst. for Env. Studies, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada, 199 pp. (1977) (price $5.00).

The Proceedings of this Symposium contain the following papers:

Environmental Impact Analysis in Perspective, T. Owen 
The Process of Environmental Assessment: Making It Work for Canada, R. Lang and A. Armour 
Environmental Impact Assessment Methodologies; A Critical Review, D. J. Coleman 
The Role of Public Participation in the Environmental Impact Assessment Process, A. P. Grima 
The Application of Ecological Modelling to Impact Assessment, H. A. Regier and D. J. Rapport 
Indices of Environmental Quality and Their Use in Environmental Assessment, H. Inhaber 
Environmental Impact Assessment and the Needs of Decision-Makers, D. P. McIntyre 
Problems of Communicating Environmental Assessment Information to Decision- Makers, G. B. Priddle 
The Evolving Role of the Environmental Assessment Board in Decision-Making, D. S. Caverly and M. G. Jones 
The Core-Group as a Method for Integrating the Work of The Multi-Disciplinary Environmental Team, J. W. Greenall 
The Role of Geographic Information Systems in the Environmental Assessment Process, E. B. MacDougall 
A Strategy for Hindsight Evaluation of Environmental Impacts, J. C. Day, R. F. Brady, K. C. Bridger, B. F. Friesen and S. E. Peet 
Environmental Impact Assessment in the University Curriculum, M. Plewes and J. B. R. Whitney 

A4.1.8 Caldwell, L. K. NEPA: Status and Accomplishments, Trans. 38th North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference, pp. 19-30 (1973). 

A personal view is given of the status and achievements of the United States National Environmental Po1icy Act. Caldwell concludes that 'NEPA is no substitute for more detailed legislation governing environmental pollution, land-use planning, wildlife protection, and the quality of the human environment. It is a statesman's law and is not, in the narrow sense, a lawyer's law'.

A4.1.9 Clark, B. D., Chapman, K., Bisset, R. and Wathern, P., U.S. Environmental Impact Analysis: a Critical Review, Research Rep. No.30, Dept. of the Environment, HMSO, London, UK (1979) (in press). 

The objectives of this study were to review US experience of EIS preparation and to assess its relevance to the UK. Chapter 1 describes federal procedures for EIS preparation while Chapter 2 outlines state and local procedures. Chapter 3 contains a critique of certain methods which have been developed for EIS preparation. Chapter 4 discusses the relevance of US experience to the UK. A selective bibliography is appended. (Authors' abstract)

A4.1.10 Kreith, F., Lack of impact, Environment 15, 26-33 (1973). 

A personal view is given of the operational effectiveness of the US National Environmental Policy Act. 

A4.1.11 The Environmental Assessment Act, 1975, Bill 14, 5th Session, 29th Legislature, Ontario, Queen's Printer for Ontario, Toronto, Canada, 25 pp., (1975). 

A legislative bill sets forth the Ontario EIA procedures. 

A4.1.12 Mitchell, B. (Ed.), The Environmental Impact Statement, European Environmental Bureau, Vautierstraat 31, B-1040, Brussels, Belgium, 27 pp. (1975). 

The Table of Contents is as follows: 

Part 1 -Papers Presented to the Seminar 
Introductory Lecture, Steven D. Jellinek 
Application of the Environmental Impact Statement in the United Kingdom, Oliver Thorold 
Application of the Environmental Impact Statement in the Continental Legal System , Alexandre Charles Kiss and Michel Prieur 
The EEC and the Environmental Impact Statement, Dieter Hammer 
Comments on the Environmental Impact Statement, Louis-Paul Suetens 

Part II -Discussion 

A4.1.13 Blissett, M. (Ed.), Environmental Impact Assessment , Engineering Foundation, Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs, The University of Texas, Austin, Texas, USA, 278 pp. (1975). 

The Table of Contents is as follows: 

Part One -Environmental Impact Statements as Instruments of Environmental Assessment 

Impact Statements and Impact Assessment, Richard N. L. Andrews 

Part Two - How the National Environmental Policy Act is Implemented The Role of the Courts in the Implementation of NEPA, James W. Curlin. NEPA: Highlights of Recent Developments, Robert S. Lynch 

A4.1.14 Jain, R. K., Urban, L. V. and Stacey, G. S., Environmental Impact Assessment, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 330 pp. (1977). 

The Table of Contents is as follows: 

1. Introduction To Environmental Impact Analysis 
1.1 What is Environmental Impact Analysis?1.2 Who Accomplishes Environmental Impact Analysis? 1.3 Procedures for Accomplishing Environmental Impact Analysis

2. National Environmental Po1icy Act (NEPA) 
2.1 Elements of NEPA. 2.2 Effects of NEPA. 2.3 Implementation of NEPA. 2.4 Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ). 2.5 Executive Order and Agency Responses.2.6 State Environmental Policy Acts.

3. Environmental Impact Assessments and Statements (EIA/EIS) 
3.1 Definitions and Discussion of EIA/EIS. 3.2 Legislative Basis. 3.3 Function and Purpose of the Impact Assessment Process. 3.4 Types and Actions Covered by NEPA. 3.5 Detailed Content of EIA/EIS. 3.6 Processing of EIA/EIS. 

4. E1ements of Environmental Impact Analysis 
4.1 Agency Activities. 4.2 Environmental Attributes. 4.3 Determining Environmental Impact. 4.4 Reporting Findings. 

5. Impact Assessment Methodologies 
5.1 Choosing a Methodology .5.2 Categorizing Methodologies. 5.3 Review Criteria. 5.4 Methodology Descriptions. 5.5 Methodology Review. 5.6 Future Directions. 

6. Generalized Approach for Impact Analysis 
6.1 Agency Activities. 6.2 Environmental Attributes. 6.3 Institutional Constraints. 6.4 Environmental Setting. 6.5 System. 6.6 Output. 6.7 Rationale for a Computer Based System. 

7. Procedures for Reviewing Environmental Impact Statements 
7.1 An Example Review Procedure. 7.2 Illustration of Review Procedure. 7.3 Summary. 

8. Special Issues
8.1 Public Participation. 8.2 Economic Impact Analysis. 8.3 Energy and Impact Analysis. 

A4.1.15 Fairfax, S. K., A disaster in the environmental movement, Science 199, 743-748 (1978). 

The author believes that NEPA has done more harm than good, turning environmentalists' efforts to argue that an agency lacks authority to act, to a preoccupation with the inadequacies of EISs.

A4.1.16 Gamble, D. J., The Berger inquiry: an impact assessment process, Science 199, 946-952 (1978). 

The Mackenzie Valley Pipeline Inquiry, conducted by the Honorable Mr. Justice T. R. Berger, undertook to explore thoroughly the issues surrounding the building of a northern pipeline. In doing so, the Inquiry provided a forum for the interplay of the technical and Environmental issues with very personalized social and cultural concerns. As a process, it reached out beyond the direct participants: it became one in which all Canadians, north and south, participated. It touched some of Canada's deepest concerns-concerns about energy policy, resource allocation, the price and priority of industrial deve1opment, cultural sovereignty, and self-definition. These have become national concerns, not just regional. And so, no matter what the final decision is about the pipeline, the Inquiry will have a profound and lasting national influence, (Author's abstract) 

A4.1.17 EA Update, Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto, Canada (a serial publication) (1977-), 

This regular newsletter provides information on EIAs in the Province of Ontario, Canada. 

A4.1.18 Wandesforde-Smith, G., Projects, policies and environmental impact assessment: a look inside California's black box, Env. Policy and Law 3, 167-175 (1977). 

A case history is presented of the effectiveness of the Ca1ifornia EIA process. 

A4.1.19 Bendix, S. and Graham, H. R., Environmental Assessment, Ann Arbor Science, Ann Arbor, Mich., 288 pp. (1978). 

The Table of Contents is as follows: 

The Developing Art of Decision-Making in a People-Oriented Society, James K. Thompson 
Decision-Making within the Environmental Impact Analysis Process -The New York City Experience, Gerald J. Franz 
An Approach to the Determination of Significance in the Preparation of Environmental Assessments, George F. Ames 
Boon or Boondoggle? A crisis in Our Adolescence, Robert S. De Santo 
Environmental Consideration for U.S. Assistance Programs in Developing Countries, Albert C. Printz, Jr. 
The California Environmental Quality Act and its Implementation, Paul E. Zigman 
Environmental Assessment: The Florida Perspective, Allan Milledge and Earl G. Gallop 
Environmental Assessment in Michigan: The Man/Environment Relationship in the Human Ecosystem, Terry L. Yonker
The Environmental Assessment Process in Minnesota, John L. Robertson, Joseph E. Sizer and Arnold W. Blomquist 
Implementing the Environmental Assessment Process in Virginia, Susan T. Wilburn 
Implementing the Environmental Policy -Where We've Been and Where We're Going, David W. Heiser 
The Environmental Process in a Large California City, Selina Bendix 
Manners, Banners, Egos and Ethics, Carol Ford Benson 
Sound Principles Overcome By Reality, Edward Bogdan 
The Responsibilities of Environmental Consultants, John C. Henningson
Environmental Concerns in Planning and Development at the Local Level, Philip Barske 
Regulatory Reform in Environmental Assessment: Is It Needed? To Be or Not to Be? , James M. Burger 
Achievement of National Environmental Policy Goals, Ruth Hamilton Allen and John S. Winder, Jr . 
The Maryland Water Resources Administration's Experience with the EIS Review Process, Roger A. Kanerva 
Public Involvement Techniques Utilized in Highway Transportation Planning, William M. Wood 
Predicting Public Response to Urban Systems Planning, Laurence Sherman 
Concluding Remarks Regarding the Review Process, Rebecca W. Hanmer 
Toward Creative Administration for Environmental Quality, Ned J. Cronin and Gerald R. Mylroie 
Changing Needs Related to the Tocks Island Dam Project, Thomas M. O'Neill 
Power Plant Siting Under the NEPA Process: Success or Failure? , W. Samuel Tucker, Jr. 
The Environmental Impact Statement as a Tool for Transportation Decision-Making, Martin Convisser 

A4.1.20 Cheremisinoff, P. N. and Morresi, A. C., Environmental Assessment and Impact Statement Handbook, Ann Arbor Science Pub., Ann Arbor, Mich., USA, 438 pp. (1977). 

The Table of Contents is as follows: 

The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 
The Environmental Impact Statement 
Environmental Assessment of the EIS 
Environmental Methodology 
Air Quality Impact 
Impact on Water Resources 
Solid Wastes-Noise-Economics 
Oil Spill Impact 
Nuclear Power 
Radioactive Waste Treatment Practices 
Petroleum Refinery Environmental Assessment
Environmental Assessment of the Rubber Industry 

See also the following references: A4.2.11, A4.2.12, A4.2.21

A4.2 IMPACT ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGIES 

The summaries for items A4.2.1 to A4.2.10 inclusive have been extracted directly from: 

Warner, M. L. and Preston, E. H., Review of Environmental Impact Assessment Methodologies, Battelle Columbus Laboratories, Columbus, Ohio, USA, Report to US Environmental Protection Agency, Contract No. 68-Q1-1871 (1974). 

A4.2.1 Dee, N., Baker, J. K., Drobny, N. L., Duke, K. M. and Fahringer, D. C., Environmental Evaluation System for Water Resources Planning, Report to the US Bureau of Reclamation, Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, Ohio (January 1972). See also, Dee, N., Baker, J., Drobny, N., Duke, K., Whitman, I. and Fahringer, D., Water Resources Research 9, 523-535 (June 1973). 

This is a checklist procedure emphasizing quantitative assessment of impacts. It was designed for major water resource projects but most parameters are appropriate for other types of projects. Seventy-eight specific environmental parameters are defined within the four categories of ecology , environmental pollution, aesthetics, and human interest. The approach does not deal with economic or secondary impacts; social impacts are only partially covered within the human interest category. 

Impacts are measured via specific indicators and formulas defined for each parameter. Parameter measurements are converted to a common base of 'environmental quality units' through specified graphs or value functions. Impacts can be aggregated using a set of preassigned weights. 

The resource requirements are rather high, particularly data requirements. These requirements probably restrict the use of the approach to assessments of major projects. 

The approach emphasizes explicit procedures for impact measurement and evaluation and should therefore produce replicable results. Both spatial and temporal aspects of impacts are noted and explicitly weighted in the assessment. Public participation, uncertainty, and risk concepts are not dealt with. An important idea of the approach is the highlighting of key impacts via a 'red flag' system. 

A4.2.2 Dee, N ., Drobny, N. L., Baker, J. K., Duke, K. M. and Fahringer, D. C., Planning Methodology for Water Quality Management, Environmental Evaluation System, Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, Ohio (July 1973). 

This approach to impact assessment defies ready classification since it contains elements of checklist, matrix, and other approaches. Areas of possible impacts are defined by a hierarchical system of 4 categories (ecology , physical/chemical, aesthetic, social), 19 components, and 64 parameters. An inter-action matrix is presented to indicate which activities associated with water-quality treatment projects generally impact which parameters. The range of parameters is comprehensive, excluding only economic variables. 

Impact measurement incorporates two important elements. A set of 'ranges' is specified for each parameter to express impact magnitude on a scale from zero to one. The ranges assigned to each parameter within a component are then combined by means of an 'environmental assessment tree' into a summary environmental impact score for that component. The significance of inputs on each component is quantified by a set of assigned weights. A net impact can be obtained for any alternative by multiplying each component score by its weight factor and summing across components. 

The key features are comprehensiveness, explicitness in defining procedures for impact identification and scoring, and flexibility in allowing use of best available data. 

Sections of the report explain the several uses of the approach in an overall planning effort and discuss means of public participation. The data, time, and cost requirements when used for impact assessment are moderate, though a small amount of training would be required to familiarize users with the techniques. 

Because of its explicitness, the approach possesses only minor ambiguities and should be highly replicable. Because the environmental assessment trees are developed specifically for water-treatment facilities, the approach cannot be adapted to other types of projects without reconstructing the trees, though the parameters could be useful as a simple checklist. 

One potentially significant obstacle to use of the approach is the difficulty of explaining the procedures to the public. Regardless of the validity of the 'trees', they are unfamiliar devices developed by highly specialized multivariate analysis techniques; public acceptance of conclusions reached by their use may be low. 

A4.2.3 Krauskopf, T. M. and Bunde, D. C., Evaluation of environmental impact through a computer modelling process, Environmental Impact Analysis: Philosophy and Methods (Ed. Robert Ditton and Thomas Goodale), University of Wisconsin Sea Grant Program, Madison, Wisconsin (1972), pp.107-I25. 

This approach employs an overlay technique via computer mapping. Data on a large number of environmental characteristics are collected and stored in the computer on a grid system of I km2 cells. Highway route alternatives can either be evaluated by the computer (by noting the impacts on the cells) or may be generated via a program identifying the route of least impact. 

The environmental characteristics are rather comprehensive, particularly as regards land use and physiographic characteristics. Though the approach was developed and applied to a highway setting, it is adaptable, with relatively small changes in characteristics examined, to other project types with geographically well defined and concentrated impacts. Because the approach requires considerable data from the project region, it is not practical for the analysis of programs of broad geographical scope. In addition, the technology requirements may make it practical at the present time for only major projects, or in situations where a statewide, computerized data base exists (New York, Minnesota, Iowa, etc.). 

The estimation of impact importance is done through the specification of subjective weights. Because the approach is computerized, the effects of several alternative weighting schemes can be readily analyzed. 

The approach is attractive from several viewpoints. It allows a demonstration of weighted characteristics which are central to a particular alternative route; it presents a readily understandable graphic representation of impacts and alternatives; it easily handles several subjective weighting systems; the incremental costs of considering or generating additional alternatives are 1ow; and it fits well with developing regional and statewide data bank systems. 

The mechanics of the approach -how impacts are measured and combined - are not readily apparent from the cited reference. Considerable training beyond the information available in this reference would be required to use the approach. 

A4.2.4 Leopold, L.B., Clarke, F.E., Hanshaw, B.B. and Ba1sley, J.R., A Procedure for Evaluating Environmental Impact, Geological Survey Circular 645, Government Printing Office, Washington (1971). 

This is an open-cell matrix approach identifying 100 project activities and 88 environmental characteristics or conditions. For each action involved in a project, the analyst evaluates the impact on every environmental characteristic in terms of impact magnitude and significance. These evaluations are subjectively determined by the analyst. Ecological and physical-chemical impacts are treated comprehensively, social and indirect impacts are less well handled, and economic and secondary impacts are not considered. 

Because the assessments are subjective, resource requirements are very flexible, The approach was not developed in reference to any specific type of project and may be broadly applied with some alterations. 

Guide1ines for use of the approach are minimal and several important ambiguities are likely in the definition and separation of impacts. The reliance on subjective judgment, again without guidelines, reduces the replicability of the approach. 

The approach is chiefly valuable as a means of identifying project impacts and as a display format for communicating results of an analysis. 

A4.2.5 McHarg, I., A comprehensive highway route-selection method, Highway Research Record, No.246, 1968, pp. 1-15, or McHarg, I., Design with Nature, Natural History Press: Garden City, New York (1969), pp. 31-41. 

The McHarg approach is a system employing transparencies of environmental characteristics overlaid on a regional base map. Eleven to sixteen environmental and land-use characteristics are mapped. The maps represent three levels of the characteristics, based upon 'compatibility with the highway'. These references do not indicate how this compatibility is to be determined but available documentation is cited. 

The value of this approach is in screening alternative project sites or routes. Within this limited field, it is applicable to a variety of project types. 

Resource requirements of the McHarg approach are not too demanding, in terms of data, because information is not directly quantified, only categorized into three levels. High degrees of skill and training are required, however, to prepare the map overlays.

The approach seems most useful as a 'first-cut method' of identifying and sifting alternative project sites, preliminary to detailed impact analysis. 

A4.2.6 Central New York Regional Planning and Development Board, Environmental Resources Management, prepared for Department of HUD (October 1972) (available through the US National Technical Information Service PB 217-517). 

This matrix approach assesses in simple terms the major and minor, direct and indirect impacts of certain water-related construction activities. It is designed primarily to measure only the physical impacts of water resource projects in a watershed, and is based on an identification of the specific, small-scale component activities that are included in any project. Restricted to physical impacts on nine different types of water-shed are as (e.g., wet lands) and fourteen types of activities (e.g., tree removal), the procedure indicates four possible levels of impact-receptor interactions (major-direct through minor-indirect ). Low to moderate resources in terms of time, money, or personnel are required, due principally to its simple way of quantification (major versus minor impact). However, the procedure is severely limited in its ability to compare different projects or the magnitude of different impacts. There is no spatial or temporal differentiation; hence the full range of impacts cannot be assessed. Impact uncertainty and high damage-low probability impacts are also not considered. Only two levels of the magnitude of an impact are identified, while the importance of the impacts is not assessed, resulting in only moderate replicability. The lack of objective evaluation criteria may produce ambiguous results. 

The value of the approach is less in the actual assessment of the quantitative impacts of a potential project than in a 'capability rating system' which determines recommended development policies based on existing land characteristics. Thus, guidelines on desirable and undesirable activities with respect to the nine types of watershed areas are used to map a region in terms of an optimum land-use plan. The actual mapping procedure is not described, however, and hence that aspect of the impact assessment cannot be evaluated here. 

A4.2.7 Sorensen, J., A Framework for Identification and Control of Resource Degradation and Conflict in the Multiple Use of the Coastal Zone, University of California, Department of Landscape Agriculture, Berkeley (1971), and Sorensen, J. and Pepper, J. E., Procedures for Regional Clearinghouse Review of Environmental Impact Statements -Phase Two, Report to the Association of Bay Area Governments (April 1973). 

These two publications present a flow-chart approach suitable for EIA. The approach is not a full system but rather a guide to the identification of impacts. Several potential uses of the California coastal zone are examined with flow-charts, relating uses: (a) to causal factors (project activities; (b) to first order changes; (c) to second. and third-order changes; and finally (d) to effects. The major strength of the approach is its ability to identify the pathways by which both primary and secondary environmental impacts are produced. 

The second reference indicates the types of data relevant to each identified effect, though no specific measurable indicators are suggested. In this reference, some general criteria for identifying projects of regional significance are suggested, based on project size and types of impacts generated , particularly land-use impacts. 

Because the preparation of the required detailed flow-charts is a major undertaking, the approach is presently limited to some commercial, residential, and transportation uses of the California coastal zone for which flow-charts have been prepared. An agency wishing to use the approach in other circumstances might develop its own flow diagrams. 

A4.2.8 Stover, L.V., Environmental Impact Assessment: A Procedure, Sanders and Thomas: Miami, Florida (1972). 

This is a checklist procedure for a general quantitative evaluation of environmental impacts from development activities. The type and range of these activities is not specified, but is believed to be comprehensive. Fifty different impact parameters are sufficient to include most possible effects, and thereby allow much flexibility. Sub-parameters indicate specific impacts, but there is no indication of how the individual measures are aggregated into a single parameter value. While spatial differences in impacts are not indicated, both initial and future impacts are included and explicitly compared. Resource requirements are moderate to heavy. The impact criteria are only partially quantitative, with seven possible values ranging from an extremely beneficial impact to an extremely detrimental one. Therefore, there is potential for ambiguous and subjective results, with only moderate replicability. Impact areas are implicitly assumed to be of equal importance. A specific method is mentioned for choosing the optimum alternative in terms of benefits and adverse effects. The procedure for comparison of alternatives may be the most interesting aspect of the procedure, with results given in terms of the proportional significance of an impact vis-Ó-vis other alternatives. There is no explicit mention of either public involvement in the process, or environmental risks. 

The EIA procedure is presented as only one step in a total evaluation scheme which includes concepts of dynamic ecological stability and other ideas. A description of the entire process is not included, however . 

A4.2.9 Multi-Agency Task Force, Guidelines for Implementing Principles and Standards for Multi-Objective Planning of Water Resources, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation; Washington (1972) (Tech. Info. Service PB 208-822). 

The Task Force approach is an attempt to coordinate features of the Water Resources Council's Proposed Principles and Standards for Planning Water and Related Land Resources with requirements of NEPA. It develops a checklist of environmental components and categories. These categories of potential impacts deal comprehensively with biological, physical, cultural, and historical resources, and pollution factors but do not treat social or economic impacts. Impacts are measured in quantitative terms where possible and also are rated subjectively on 'quality' and 'human influence'. In addition, uniqueness and irreversibility considerations are included where appropriate. Several suggestions for summary tables and bar graphs are offered as communication aids. 

The approach is general enough to have wide applicability to various types of projects, though its impact categories are perhaps better tailored to rural than urban environments. No specific data or other resources are required to conduct an analysis, though an interdisciplinary project team is needed to assign the subjective weightings. Since quality , human influence, uniqueness, and irreversibilities are all subjectively rated using general considerations only, results produced by the approach may be highly variable. Significant ambiguities include a generally inadequate explanation of how human impacts are to be rated and interpreted. 

Key ideas incorporated in the approach include explicit identification of the without-project environment as distinct from present conditions, and use of an uniqueness rating system for evaluating quality and human influence (worst known, average, best known, etc.). The approach is unique among those examined in not labeling impacts as environmental benefits or cost but only as impacts to be valued by others. The approach also argues against the aggregation of impacts. 

A4.2.10 Walton, L. E., Jr. and Lewis, J. E., A Manual for Conducting Environmental Impact Studies, Viginia Highway Research Council (January 1971) (available through the National Technical Information Service PB-210 222). 

The Walton checklist is unique in its almost total reliance on social impact categories and strong public participation. The approach was developed for the evaluation of highway alternatives and identifies different impact analysis procedures for the conceptual, corridor, and design states of highway planning. All impacts are measured by either their dollar value or a weighted function of the number of persons affected. (The weights are to be determined subjectively by the study team.) The basis for most measurements is a personal interview with a representative of each impacted facility or service. 

Resource requirements are highly sensitive to project scale. The extensive interviewing may make the approach impractical for many medium-size or .large projects because agencies preparing impact statements seldom have the necessary manpower . 

Analyses produced by the approach may have poor replicability due to the lack of specific data and the criticality of the decision regarding boundaries of the analysis since many impacts are measured in terms of numbers of affected people. There is also no means of systematically taking into account the extent to which these people are affected. 

The key ideas of broader interest are the use of only social impacts, without direct consideration of other impacts (pollution, ecology , etc.), the heavy dependence on public involvement (specific suggestions are given on how the public may be involved), and the recognition of the need for different analyses at different stages of project development. 

A4.2.11 Dee, N., Griffin, J., Warner, M. and Watkins, G., An assessment of the usage of environmental assessment methodologies in environmental impact statements, DMG-DRS Journal 9, 4-9 (1976).

Environmental impact assessment methodologies have been designed to identify, integrate, and interpret environmental impacts resulting from federally funded and/or regulated projects. At the present time, these methodologies are largely ignored by practitioners involved in preparing impact statements. Three reasons have been identified for their non-use: (1) different perspectives on the role of EIS held by the methodology developers and practitioners, (2) the limited direction provided by administrative guidelines related to EIS implementation, and (3) the pressures initiated by the political arena. These methodologies will be incorporated into the EIS process when they are (1) responsive to the needs of the preparer, (2) perceived by the EIS actors such as CEQ and proponent agencies to yield more superior information, and (3) required by CEQ or the proponent agencies. (Authors' abstract) 

A4.2.12 Clark, B. P., Chapman, K., Bisset, R. and Wathern, P., Assessment of Major Industrial Applications, Res. Rep. 13, UK Dpt. of the Environment, London, UK, 170 pp. (1976). 

The Table of Contents is as follows: 

1. Background to the Research 
    1.1 Introduction. 
    1.2 The Remit and its Interpretation 

2. The Work Programme and Development of the Method of Appraisal
    2.1 Phasing of the Work. 
    2.2 Aspects of the Work. 2.3 Preliminary Conclusions. 
    2.4 Development of the Method of Appraisal 

3. Relationship of the Method to Other Aspects of Planning 
    3.1 Role of the Method in Strategic Development Control. 
    3.2 Administrative Implications of Appraisal. 
    3.3 Possible Role of the Method in Public Local Inquiries. 
    3.4 Alternative Sites. 
    3.5 Appraisal of Applications by Statutory Undertakers. 
    3.6 Public Involvement in Appraisal. 3.7 References. 

4. The Method 
    4.1 Initial Discussions with the Developer.
    4.2 Receipt of Application and Project Specification Report. 
    4.3 Initial Site Inspection. 
    4.4 Consideration of Existing Planning Policies. 
    4.5 Construction of an Impact Matrix. 
    4.6 Consultations. 
    4.7 Description of the Existing Situation in the Area. 
    4.8 Appraisal of Potential Impacts. 
    4.9 Production of Impact Statement.
    4.10 Final Issues Report and Recommendation. 
    4.11 Planning Authority Decision. 
    4.12 Conclusion. 
    4.13 References.

Appendix: Ten Technical Advice Notes 

Hydrological considerations in the appraisal of major development applications. Landscape character assessment for the appraisal of major development applications. Method for determining the zone of visual influence of a proposed industrial installation. Approach to assessing ecological impacts. Framework for estimating the impact of a proposed industrial development on local employment. Method for estimating immigrant flow arising from a proposed industrial development. Transport considerations in the appraisal of major development applications. Method for assessing the impact of airborne emissions from industrial installations. Water pollution considerations in the assessment of major industrial applications. Assessment of the impact of noise and vibration from proposed industrial installations. 

A4.2.13 World Bank, Environmental, Health and Human Ecological Considerations in Economic Development Projects, World Bank, Washington, D.C., 142 pp. (1974). 

The Table of Contents is as follows: 

I. Agriculture 

Environmental Considerations 
1. Agricultural Development. 2. Irrigation Systems 

II Industry 

Guidelines for Estimating Industrial Environmental Impact 
Outline of Environmentally Sensitive Targets in Guideline Steps 
Environmental Considerations 

1. Fertilizer Plants. 2. Iron and Steel Mills. 3. Mining Operations. 4. Petroleum-Petrochemical Industry .5. Pulp and Paper Mills. 6. Smelting Plants. 7. Textile Mills. 8. Tourism. 

III. Transportation 

Environmental Considerations 
1. Airports. 2. Ports and Harbors. 3. Roads and Highways.

IV: Utilities 

Environmental Considerations 
1. Dams. 2. Power Plants (Fossil-fuelled, Nuclear-fuelled and Hydroelectic 3. Sewerage and Sewage Treatment. 

V. Public Health

Part I -Potential Adverse Effects upon Human Health 

A. Direct Health Impact upon People in the Project Area 
B. Direct Health Impact upon Workmen 
C. Indirect Health Impact due to Effects upon Disease Vectors 
D. Impact upon Existing Health Services. 

Part II -Guide to Planning the Control of Adverse Health Effects 

A. Community Aspects; Human Factors
B. Community Aspects: Environmental Factors 
C. Work Force Factors 
D. Areawide Factors 
E. Health Care Service 
F. Proposed Administrative Structure for Implementation 

VI. Comparative International Standards 

Part I -Air Pollution Standards 
Air Quality Standards 
Emission Standards 
Stack Height Standards 
Fuel Standards 

Part II -Water Quality Criteria and Standards for Industrial Effluents 
Physical Pollutants 
Chemical Pollutants 
Organic Chemicals 
Biochemical Oxygen Demand 
International Water Quality Criteria and Standards 

VII. Resource References

I. Agriculture 
II. Industry 
III. Transportation 
IV. Utilities 
V. Public Health 
VI. Standards 
VII. General 
VIII. Institutional Resources 

A4.2.14 Holling, C. S. (Ed.), Adaptive Environmental Assessment and Management, Wiley: Chichester, UK (1978). 

The Table of Contents is as follows: 

Chapter 1. Overview and Conclusions 
    The Book and Its Audience. Myths of Environmental Management and Assessment. Background to Present Assessment 
    Practices. The Issue of Uncertainty. Procedure and Techniques. The Problem of Implementation. Conclusions. 

Section I. The Approach 
Chapter 2. The Nature and Behavior of Ecological Systems 
    Spatial Behavior. Stability and Resilience. Dynamic Variability. The Behavior of Institutions. 

Chapter 3. Steps in the Process 
    Environmental Assessment. Environmental Management. 

Chapter 4. Orchestrating the Assessment 
    Current Practice. Workshops, the Core of Adaptive Management. The Initial Workshop. Steps in the First Workshop.
    Second Phase Workshops. Transfer Workshops.

Chapter 5. Choosing a Technique. 
   Complexity, Data, and Understanding. Modeling the Processes. A spectrum of Techniques. Exploration of New Techniques. 

Chapter 6. Simplification for Understanding 
    Manifold Analysis. 

Chapter 7. Model Invalidation and Belief. 
    Data, Model Structure, and Invalidation. Evidence for Invalidation. 

Chapter 8. Evaluation of Alternative Policies 
    Indicator Generation. Initial Comparisons of Policies. Further Comparisons. Utility Analysis. Uncertainties. Time Horizons
     and Discounting. Summary . 

Chapter 9. Communication 
    What Information? Methods of Communication. Conclusion. 

Chapter 10. An Underview 
    Prediction is Never Perfect. 

Section II. Case Studies 
Chapter 11. The Spruce Budworm/Forest Management Problem: a Case Study in Adaptive Policy Design 

Chapter 12. Pacific Salmon Management 

Chapter 13. Obergurgl. Development in High Mountain Regions of Austria 

Chapter 14. An Analysis of Regional Development in Venezuela 

Chapter 15. A Wildlife Impact Information System 

A4.2.15 Commission d'Evaluation, Rapport Final, et Rapports de SynthŔse, MinistŔre des Affaires Economiques, Royaume de Belgique, Brussels, Belgium, 78 and 150 pp. (1976). 

An EIA is given concerning the utilization of nuclear energy in Belgium. Ecological, economic, socio-political, and sanitary factors are considered. 

A4.2.16 Solomon, R. C., Colbert, B. K., Hansen, W. J., Richardson, S. E., Canter, L. W. and Vlachos, E. C., Water Resources Assessment Methodology ... Impact Assessment and Alternative Evaluation, Tech. Rep. Y-77-1, Env. Effects Lab., US Army Eng. Waterways Experiment Station, Vicsburg, Miss., USA, 150 pp. (1977). 

The Table of Contents is as follows: 

Part I: Introduction 

Background for Impact Assessment 
Purpose and Scope 

Part II: Evaluation of Existing Environmental Assessment Methodologies 

Types of Methodologies 
Evaluation of Methodologies

Part III: Environmental Assessment Methodology 

Weighting-Scaling Technique 
Components 

Part IV: Conclusions and Recommendations 

Conclusions 
Recommendations 

A4.2.17 Rabinovich, J. E., Analysis of Alternative Land Uses in Tropical Watersheds. The GURI model: A Venezuelan Case Study, Centre de Eco1ogia, Venezue1an Institute for Scientific Research, Caracas, 231 pp. (1977). 

The Guri Hydroelectric Project, south of the Orinoco river (Venezuela), will be completed in two steps: the first was finished in 1977 with a total installed capacity of 2,650,000 kW; the second one is expected to be ready by 1982, to complete a total of 9 ,000,000 kW installed in the site. 

The water resources for this energy development programme come from the Rio Caroni watershed, of which more than half is covered by highly valuable commercial forests. This has resulted in pressure for exploiting the more valuable woods; also the area is becoming a large industrial developing site, demanding more and more land for food production. The local soils are relatively poor, and a sustained food production policy implies a progressive advance towards the higher parts of the watershed, producing an important and accumulating change in the vegetation cover of the area. 

A computer model was developed to analyse the possible impact of such a policy. A point model simulates the dynamics of water, using seven mathematical functions describing five key processes: rain interception by the forest, water infiltration in the soil, evapotranspiration, percolation, and erosion. 

The inputs and outputs of the point model were produced dividing the watershed into a grid of 40 contiguous cells of 55 by 55 km; in every cell, the point model was applied, using the day as the time unit. The daily superficial and subsuperficial run-offs produced by the point model were integrated in time and space, applying time-lags estimated from cross-correlations between rain and river flow series. 

In addition to the physical-biological point model, the GURI model also considers the economic aspects of the region. A timber sub-routine estimated the profits from wood extraction activities; an agricultural sub-routine estimated the profits from corn, manioc, and bovine cattle; and another sub-routine considered the profits of the hydroelectric activities. All profits were accumulated during the 50 year simulation period, at an 8% discount rate. 

Due to the character of the potential conflict of interests existing in the area, two types of actions were evaluated as possible environmental interventions: the rate of timber exploitation, and the proportion of the area exploited for timber that is turned into agricultural production. Both actions were implemented at five different levels of intensity, producing a total of 25 intervention strategies; for each of them, the GURI model was processed during 50 simulated years.

The physical, biological, and economic results of the simulation model were analyzed for different time horizons, and the output was compressed to facilitate its use by administrators in decision-making by means of Peterman's desk-top optimization method, which involved the isoline representation of the output. 

The results show that as the time horizon used for planning increases, profits can still be maximized, but at the expense of a lower environmental degradation. The desk-top optimization process showed the decision actions that could be made depending upon the environmental degradation constraints used by the administrator. With a low permissible ecological deterioration value (10-20%), the decision would be: extract any amount of wood, but no agriculture should be allowed; with higher permissible environmental degradation (30-50%), the decision would be: minimize the extraction of wood, and allow agriculture to use about 50-60% of the area affected by wood extraction. 

A4.2.18 Duke, K. M., Dee, N., Fahringer, D., Maiden, B., Pomeroy, S. and Watkins, George, Environmental Quality Assessment in Multiobjective Planning, Battelle Columbus Labs., Columbus, Ohio, USA, 150 pp. (1977). 

This approach is designed for use in determining the environmental effects of water resource project alternatives. It is consistent with the Principles and Standards proposed by the US Water Resources Council. 

The methodology is structured as a checklist of factors describing biological resources, physical resources, human resources, human enjoyment/recreation - water, and human enjoyment/recreation-land. The key feature of the methodology is to focus on the significant environmental factors of a project. A screening procedure is employed to reduce the large number of factors to the most important ones. Guidelines for determining the importance of a factor are also developed as part of the methodology. 

The approach addresses many of the shortcomings of existing methodologies. It is designed to focus on key environmental elements, to be used by regional staff, and to maintain measurement data throughout the evaluation. It does not use weightings or indices in the evaluation process. 

A4.2.19 Battelle, Environmental Evaluation in Project Planning, Contract No. 6-07-DR-50150, Battelle Columbus Labs., Columbus, Ohio, USA, 155 pp. (1977). 

The Table of Contents is as follows: 

Chapter 1 -Introduction 

Chapter 2 -Review of Water Resources, Principles, and Standards 

Multiobjective Planning in Water Resource Development 

Water Resource Planning Accounts. Environmental Quality Assessment: The EQ Account. 

Analysis of Environmental Assessment Methodologies 

Review of Existing Environmental Assessment Methodologies. Comparison of Selected Methods with Water Resources Council Principles and Standards. Problems With Using Environmental Assessment Methods In Planning. Requirements of an Approach for Preparing the Environmental Quality Account. 

Chapter 3 -Description of Bureau of Reclamation's Environmental Assessment System 

Structure of the Contents of the Environmental Assessment System 
Hierarchical System. Environmental Checklist. 

Procedure for Using the Environmental Assessment System 
General Considerations. Overview of Procedure. Measurement of Environmental Effects. Evaluation of Environmental Effects. Display Summary 

Chapter 4- Contents of Bureau of Reclamation's Environmental Assessment Methodology 

Biological Resources 
Biological Resources. Ecological Systems. 

Physical Resources 
Water Quality. Air Quality. Sound Quality. Visual Quality. Land Quality. Geological Quality. 

Human Resources 
Historical and Archeological Resources. 

Human Enjoyment/Recreation-Water 
Streams and Stream Systems. Beaches and Shores. Lakes and Reservoirs. Estuaries and Wetlands. 

Human Enjoyment/Recreation-Land 
Wilderness, Primitive, and Natural Areas. Open Space and Greenbelts. 

Chapter 5- Framework for Evaluation of Environmental Effects 

Screening Approach to Evaluation 
Objective of Evaluation. Screening Methodology. 

Development of Evaluation Guidelines 
Concept of Environmental Potential. Elements of an Evaluation Guideline. Evaluation Decision Rules. 

Chapter 6 -Development of Environmental Objectives 

An Approach to Developing Environmental Objectives 
Problems and Opportunities. Environmental Potential. 

Procedure for Developing Environmental Objectives 
Step 1. Develop Public Involvement Program. Step 2. Identify Problems and Opportunities. Step 3. Development of Environmental Objectives. 

A4.2.20 Science Council of Japan, Science for a Better Environment, HESC, Science Council, Tokyo, 991 pp. (1976). 

The Proceedings of the International Congress on the Human Environment, held in Kyoto in 1975, contains a number of papers related to EIA institutional procedures and scientific methodologies. 

A4.2.21 Amir, S., Local Environmental Sensitivity Analysis (LESA): a program to improve the preparation of Environmental Impact Statements, Landscape Planning 2, 229-241 (1976). 

The author makes some methodological suggestions for EIAs. 

A4.2.22 Matthews, W. H., Objective and subjective judgement in Environmental impact analysis, Env. Cons. 2, 121-131 (1975). 

The author's summary is as follows: 

Analyses of environmental impacts, and descriptions of methodologies for conducting them, have not always been explicitly cognizant of the subjective value judgements that must be made in the process of collecting, refining, assessing, and presenting objective scientific information. This paper has outlined the types of objective and subjective judgements that are made in each of the following major steps of the analysis: identifying major activities; selecting environmental components; selecting types of impacts; assessing the possibilities and/or probabilities of occurrences; determining the degree of the impacts; determining the time frame of impacts; designating impacts as positive, neutral, or negative; and determining trade-offs among activities and impacts. 

The subjective judgements that must be made are based on values, feelings, beliefs, and prejudices, and are functions of the personal, institutional, professional, and societal contexts of the analyst. If great care is not taken in making these judgements, and in making very explicit the value framework used, the effectiveness and credibility of the analyst may be sharply reduced. There is also the danger that society and its decision-makers will be presented with an analysis having so many built-in biases that the legitimate role of the decision-makers in assessing the analysis and then making important value trade-offs is seriously compromised. This paper has attempted to make the nature of the process of analysis explicit with respect to the introduction and treatment of values, so that these problems can be understood and, it is hoped, properly managed by both scientists and decision-makers. 

A4.2.23 Gevirtz, J. L. and Rowe, P. G., Natural environmental impact assessment: a rational approach, Env. Management 1, 213-226 (1977). 

The author's abstract is as follows: 

A method is presented which combines environmental indices and estimates of , inputs from various land uses to aid in environmental impact assessments. Unweighted pair/group cluster analyses are used to obtain relationships between easily observable environmental indices, such as vegetation types, soils, and geology, based on their mutual recurrence. These relationships are shown by using an ordination technique which shows the nature of complex impacts on a natural system. Results are used to develop an environmental effects sequence diagram based on known scientific and engineering principles and observed natural relationships. The diagram may be used in conjunction with land-use data to estimate the possible magnitude of impacts on the pre-existing system which may result from such land use. Several examples are developed which quantify inputs from various land uses and which compare them with environmental inputs including point source and non-point source liquid and atmospheric emissions, land modifications, and resource consumption. Known average values are used and a separate comparison is made in describing the vast differences between the project phases of construction versus long-term operation. A hypothetical environmental impact assessment is given for a small residential development in Chambers County, Texas, USA. 

A4.2.24 Tarr, J. A. (Ed.), Retrospective Technology Assessment, San Francisco Press, 547 Howard St., San Francisco, Cal., 326 pp. (1977). 

This is the proceedings of a conference sponsored by the National Science Foundation and the Carnegie-Mellon University in the USA. The 18 papers cover the subjects of methodology , case studies (8), and the relationship between technology and values. 

A4.2.25 EIA Review, EIA Project, MIT, Cambridge, Mass., USA (1977). 

The EIA Review describes current EIA methodology studies within the EIA Project, Laboratory of Architecture and Planning, Massachusett Institute of Technology . 

A4.2.26 Ross, J. H., The Numeric Weighting of Environmental Interactions, Lands Directorate, Environment Canada, Ottawa, 39 pp. (1976). 

This paper sets forth a numeric methodology that uses the technique of nonmetric multidimensional scaling to determine interval measures of the importance of environmental component interdependencies and then combines these to yield numeric indices of environmental impact. 

The proposed methodology is applied to a real-world environmental impact Assessment project. The results are found to be in very close agreement with those of a study group charged with performing the same task by conventional methods of impact assessment. (Author's abstract)

A4.2.27 Kates, R. W. (Ed.), Managing Technological Hazard: Research Needs and Opportunities, Inst. of Behavioural Science, U. of Colorado, Boulder, Col., USA, 169 pp. (1977). 

Workshop reports and background papers on the risk assessment of technological hazards are included in this volume. 

A4.2.28 Mar , B. (Ed.), Regional Environmental Systems, NSF/ENV 76-04273, Dpt. Civil Eng., U. of Washington, Seattle, Wash., USA, 408 pp. (1978).

A description is given of 18 regional research projects in the USA which employed interdisciplinary research teams, large-scale computer models and information systems, and direct interactions of model builders/analysers and politicians/decision-makers. 

See also the following references: A4.1.4, A4.1.7 , A4.1.9, A4.1.14, and A4.1.20

A4.3 METHODS FOR ESTIMATING SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPACTS 

A4.3.1 Vlachos, E., Buckley, W., Filstead, W. J., Jacobs, S. E., Maruyarna, M., Peterson, J. H. and Willeke, G. E., Social Impact Assessment: An Overview, IWR Paper 75-P7 , US Army Eng. Inst. for Water Resources, Fort Belvoir,Virginia, USA, 104 pp. (1975). 

The Table of Contents is as follows: 

Introduction 
General Premises. Epistemological Perspectives. Socio-Political Realities. The Social Scientist. The Integration of Social Sciences in the Planning Field. 

Human Community (profiling, Modeling) 
Human Community. Structural. Cultural. Interrelationships. Phenomenological. 

Methods-Analysis 
The General Model of Social Science Research. Data Gathering. Data Organization. Display and Analysis. Forecasting, or Using Assessment as a Predictive Process. 

Assessment and Evaluation 
Sources of Evaluation. Evaluation Criteria and Procedures. 

Management Considerations 
The World of Social Science. Levels of Competency in Social Science. The Social Scientists in the Multidisciplinary Impact Assessment. Integration of Social Science Expertise into the Corps. Mutual Education of Engineer/ Planners and Social Scientists. 

Summary-Recommendations 

A4.3.2 EPRI, Proc. Workshop on the Measure of Intangible Environmental Impacts, EPRI EA-405-SR, WS 76-78, Electric Power Res. Inst., Palo Alto, Cal., USA, 150 pp. (1977).

The Table of Contents is as follows: 

1. Introduction 
Allen V Kneese, Workshop Chairman, Introductory Remarks: Evaluating Intangible Damages of Electric Power Development 

2. Hedonic Approach 
Karl-Goran MÓler, Property Values and Damage Functions 
Sherwin Rosen, Richard H. Thaler, Some Results of Research on the Value of Saving Lives
Thomas D. Crocker, The Use of Household Production Functions to Measure Valued Intangible Environmental Impacts 
Discussion 
Recommendations for Future Research 

3. Decision Analysis Approach 
Keshavan Nair, Accounting for Intangible Impacts- Comments on the Applicability of Decision Analysis
Baruch Fischhoff, Paul Slovic, Sarah Lichtenstein, Behavioral Aspects of Cost-Benefit Analysis 
Recommendations for Future Research 

4. Individual Behavior Approach 
B. L. Driver, Specificity in Defining Environmental Preferences at the Individual level 
Karl-Goran MÓler, Approaches Based on Individual Behavior 
Recommendations for Future Research 

5. Bidding Games and Asking Approach 
David S. Brookshire, Some Results and Problem Areas in the Application of Bidding Games 
Alan Randall , Remarks on Bidding Games 
William D. Schulze, Remarks for the Session on Bidding Games and Asking Approach 
Recommendations for Future Research 

6. Combining Social and Technical Factors 
J. B. Burnham, Challenges to Environmental Decision Making 
John A. Hebert, Valuing Intangibles: A Psychological Approach 
Joseph F. Dietz, Public Participation in Power Plant Siting- A Case History Discussion 
Recommendations for Future Research 

7. Applications Areas 
Jean-Philippe Barde, The Measurement of Noise Nuisance 
William Lin, Quantifying the Impact of Land Reclamation on Appalachian Strip-Mined Coal Industry 
Recommendations for Future Research

A4.3.3 Hartje, V. and Dierkes, M., Impact Assessment and Participation: Case Studies on Nuclear Power Plant Siting in West Germany, 76-9, Int. Inst. for Env. and Society, Blissestrasse 2, Berlin, FRG, 23 pp. (1976). 

The paper discusses public participation in the siting procedure for two planned nuclear power plants in Wyhl and Ludwigshafen (West Gerrnany). It analyses the factors that led to opposition (Wyhl) and indifference (Ludwigshafen) of the local public towards the project, and it examines the role of citizen groups during this process. The paper concludes that the legislative legitimation of siting decisions is not sufficient in view of the dominance of administrative bureaucrative processes. Thus, direct mechanisms for local participation are needed, even at the expense of a delay or change of the federal energy programme. (Author's abstract) 

A4.3.4 Allende, J., The nuclear controversy in the Basque country: siting and evaluation of nuclear power plants, Int.J. Ecol. Environ. Sci. 2, 83-95 (1976). 

The proposed location of three nuclear power plants with a generation capacity of 10,000 MW along 50 km of the densely populated and appreciated Basque Coast in the Spanish State has raised an intense controversy with strong environmental, planning, and political connotations. 

Basque people have reacted against the project because they see in it a threat to their health and security, to the physical features and natural resources of their country , and to their historical identity as a 'people'.

The article shows the difficulty of confronting theory (evaluation methodologies) with practice (facts and observations). The Basque case seems to prove that assessment of environmental goals (physical and social) cannot appropriately be made in terms of an individual's willingness to pay or accept compensation. 

The identification of the elusive normative concept 'public interest' is subject to analysis, as well as the identification of impacts and externalities. Emphasis is placed on the causal cumulative effects of environmental disruption and the irreversible character that typifies nuclear energy. 

Unresolved questions which accompany the application of conventional economics and evaluation methodologies such as cost-benefit, cost-effectiveness, goal achievement, etc., to the problem of nuclear plant location, with complex spatial externalities and interdependences in the short and long run, raise many doubts about the adequacy and relevance of the traditional tools of economic analysis.

The Basque case highlights the necessity of introducing politically formulated norms into the socio-economic planning process, calling for a collective or social decision process with direct participation and expression of preferences by all members of the relevant community, viz., the Basque Country. 

To expect rational solutions from analytical methods when the environmental dimension (physical, social, and even political) is the main factor is a dangerous illusion. As a result, the institutionalization of genuinely democratic planning procedures is an initial requirement to deal with the issue in terms of what has been called 'Participatory planning'. (Author's abstract)

See also the following references: A4.1.4, A4.1.7 , A4.1.13, A4.1.20, A4.2.12, A4.2.17, A4.2.20, A4.2.21 , and A4.2.23

A4.4 METHODS FOR PERFORMING ENGINEERING DESIGN CALCULATIONS TO MEET ENVIRONMENTAL STANDARDS 

A4.4.a Air Pollution 

A4.4.a.l Turner, D. B., Workbook of Atmospheric Dispersion Estimates, EPA, Research Triangle, N. C., USA, 84 pp. (1969). 

This workbook presents methods for estimating concentrations of air pollutants. Emphasis is on sampling times of 10 to 60 minutes. Some of the topics discussed are effective height of emission, extension of concentration estimates to longer sampling intervals, inversion break-up fumigation concentrations, and concentrations from area, line, and multiple sources. Twenty-six example problems and their solutions are given. Some graphical aids to computation are included. 

A4.4.a.2 Stern, A. C. (Ed.), Air Pollution, third edition, 5 volumes, Academic Press: New York, 752,650,824,976 and 850 pp. (1976). 

This is a standard reference in the field of air pollution control. The five volumes are titled: 

I: Air Pollutants, their Transformation and Transport 
II: The Effects of Air Pollution 
III: Measuring, Monitoring and Surveillance of Air Pollution 
IV: Engineering Control of Air Pollution 
V: Air Quality Management 

A4.4.a.3 Pasquill, F., Atmospheric Diff¨sion, second edition, Halsted Press, Wiley: New York, 429 pp. (1974). 

This is a standard reference in the field of turbulent diffusion and air pollution meteorology . A4.4.a.4 Suess, M. J. and Craxford, S. R. (Eds.), Manual on Urban Air Quality Management, WHO Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen, Denmark, 200 pp. (1976). This is a useful reference in the field of urban air quality management and control. 

A4.4.a.5 Berlyand, M. E. (Eds.), Air Pollution and Atmospheric Diff¨sion, Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Wiley: New York, Vol. 1, 221 pp. (1973), Vol. 2, 242 pp. (1974). 

These volumes provide a useful insight into Soviet methods for air pollution control. 

A4.4.a.6 AMS, Lectures on Air Pollution and Environmental Impact Assessment, Amer. Meteorol. Soc., 45 Beacon St., Boston, Mass., 296 pp. (1975).

This monograph contains the following papers: 

The Dispersion of Materials in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer-the Basis for Generalization, F. Pasquill 
Atmospheric Dispersion Models for Environmental Pollution Applications, F. A. Gifford 
Plume Rise Predictions, G. A. Briggs 
Turbulent Diffusion in Complex Terrain, B. A. Egan 
Turbulent Diffusion and Pollutant Transport in Shoreline Environments, W. A. Lyons 
Urban Diffusion Problems, S. R. Hanna 
Atmospheric Transformations of Pollutants, J. M. Hales 
Observational Systems and Techniques in Air Pollution Meteorology, W. B. Johnson and R. E. Ruff 
Meteorological Content of Environmental Impact Assessment, J. R. Mahoney and J. D. Spengler 
Federal Government Requirements for Environmental Impact Assessment, I. van der Hoven 

A4.4.b Water Pollution 

A4.4.b.1 Skeat, W. O. (Ed.), Manual of British Water Engineering Practice, third edition, Heffer: Cambridge, England, 1152 pp. (1961). 

This is a standard reference on waterworks engineering, and includes chapters on water treatment, industrial water, and the chemical, physical, and bacteriological characteristics of water . 

A4.4.b.2 Liptak, B. G. (Ed.), Environmental Engineers' Handbook; Vol. I; Water Pollution, Chilton: Radnor, Pa., USA, 2018 pp. (1974). 

This reference work contains eight chapters: 

1. Water Pollution Laws and Regulations 
2. Water, an Exhaustible Natural Resource 
3. Types of Water Pollutants and their Effects 
4. Instrumentation for Water Quality and Treatment 
5. Traditional Wastewater Treatment Techniques 
6. Advanced Forms of Wastewater Treatment
7. Removing Specific Contaminants from Water 
8. Making a Resource out of Wastes; Disposal and Reclamation 

A4.4.b.3 Bond, R. G. and Straub, C. P., Handbook of Environmental Control: Volume III; Water Supply and Treatment; Volume IV; Wastewater; Treatment and Disposal, CRC Press, 18901 Cranwood Parkway, Cleveland, Ohio, USA, 835 and 905 pp. (1972). 

These books contain large amounts of factual data, often in tabular or nomogram form, on water pollution topics. Emphasis is given to problems associated with specific industrial activities.

A4.4.b.4 Fair, G. M., Geyer, J. C. and Okun, D. A., Elements of Water Supply and Wastewater Disposal, (second edition, Wiley: New York, 752 pp. (1972). 

This text covers the engineering aspects of water pollution, and contains many worked examples. 

A4.4.b.5 AWWA, Water Quality and Treatment, third edition, American Water Works Assoc., McGraw-Hill: New York, 654 pp. (1971 ). 

This is a useful general reference on water pollution control. 

A4.4.b.6 Bartlett, R. E., Wastewater Treatment, Applied Science Publishers : London, England, 326 pp. (1971). 

This text provides engineering information on the design of wastewater treatment systems. 

See also references A.4.1.20 and A.4.2.12

A4.4.c Solid Waste Disposal

A4.4.c.l Bond, R. G. and Straub, C. P., Handbook of Environmental Control: Vol. II: Solid Waste, CRC Press, 18901 Cranwood Parkway, Cleveland, Ohio, USA, 580 pp. (1972). 

This standard reference contains three main sections : 

1. Solid Wastes-Sources and Composition 
2. Effects of Solid Wastes 
3. Solid Wastes Controls and Management 

A4.4.c.2 Yen, T. F., Recycling and Disposal of Solid Wastes, Ann Arbor Science Pub. Co: Ann Arbor, Mich., USA, 372 pp. (1974). 

This book contains general information on solid wastes, including agricultural wastes.

A4.4.c.3 Weiss, S., Sanitary Landfill Technology, Noyes Data Corp., London, England, 300 pp. (1974).

This book provides information on the construction and operation of sanitary landfills in the USA, and includes some case studies. 

A4.4.c.4 Disposal of Solid Toxic Wastes, Dpt. of the Environment, Scottish Development Department, 106 pp. (1970). 

This is a useful report of the Technical Committee on the Disposal of Solid Toxic Wastes. 

A4.4.c.5 Pohland, F. G. and Engelbrecht, R. S., Impact of Sanitary Landfills: An Overview of Environmental Factors and Control Alternatives, American Paper Inst. Inc., 260 Madison Ave., New York, 82 pp. (1976). 

This report describes current United States practices in the field of sanitary landfill.

A4.4.c.6 Barber, C. and Redhead, D. L., Maendy and Brofiskin Landfills; a Study of Possible Water Pollution by Leachate, Tech. Note 11, Water Research Centre, Stevenage, Lab., Stevenage, UK, 48 pp. (1975). 

A discussion is given of landfill practices and problems at two disused quarries in the UK. 

A4.4.d Noise 

A4.4.d.l Burns, W., Noise and Man, second edition, Murray: London, England, 459 pp. (1973). 

This book provides a general introduction to the subject of noise pollution and of abatement measures. 

A4.4.d.2 Bugliarello, G., Alexandre, A., Barnes, J. and Wakstein, C., The Impact of Noise Pollution, Pergamon: New York, 461 pp. (1976). 

This is a general text on noise, and includes some guidelines for preparing the noise abatement sections of EIAs. 

A4.4.d.3 Crocker, M. J. and Price, A. J., Noise and Noise Control, CRC Press, 18901 Cranwood Parkway, Cleveland, Ohio, USA, 299 pp. (1975). 

This book contains engineering methods and formulae for designing indoor and outdoor noise abatement systems. 

A4.4.d.4 AIHA, Industrial Noise Manual, American Industrial Hygiene Association, 14125 Prevost, Detroit, Mich., USA, 125 pp. (1958). 

This manual contains information on the physical characteristics of noise, its measurement, its effect on exposed persons, and its control. 

See also references A4.1.20 and A4.2.12.

A4.4.e Irrigation, Flood Control, Large Dams 

A4.4.e.l Chow, V. T., Handbook of Applied Hydrology, McGraw-Hill: New York, 500 pp. (1964). 

This classic work covers the fundamentals of hydrology . 

A4.4.e.2 Linsley, R. K., Kohler, M. A. and Paulhus, J. L. H., Hydrology for Engineers, second edition: McGraw-Hill: New York, 350 pp. (1975).

This book is widely used as a text in engineering schools in North America. 

A4.4.e.3 Kazmann, R. G., Modern Hydrology, second edition, Harper and Row: New York, 365 pp. (1972). 

This useful book contains seven chapters : 

1. Introduction 
2. Precipitation 
3. Evaporation
4. Surface Water 
5. Groundwater 
6. Water Resource Development 
7. Summation and Outlook 

A4.4.e.4 Thomas, H. H., The Engineering of Large Dams, Wiley: Chichester, 777 pp. (in 2 parts) (1976). 

This is a treatise on the engineering design of large dams but contains only superficial information on environmental considerations. 

See also Reference A4.2.12

A4.5 BIBLIOGRAPHIES 

A4.5.1 Appendix 2, pp. 76-109, in Environmental Impact Analysis, J. Catlow and C. G. Thirlwall, Res. Rep. #11, Dept. of the Environment, HMSO, London, UK (1976). 

The bibliography is subdivided according to the following classifications: 

1. Bibliographies 
2. Legislation 
3. Environmental impact Analysis 
     a Environmental impact Statements 
     b General Information about Impact Analysis 
     c Impact Statement Methodology and Evaluation Techniques 
     d Environmental Analysis in Great Britain 
4. Development and the Environment 
5. Measurement and Prediction 
6. Pollution and Pollution Control 

A4.5.2 Baxter, L. D. and Wandesforde-Smith, G., Environmental impact assessment: recent additions to the literature on law and policy, California EIR Monitor, 3-27 (February , 1977). 

The bibliography contains about 1,000 listings relating mainly to the operation of NEPA and equivalent state laws in the United States. 

A4.5.3 EIS: Key to Environmental Impact Statements (12 issues per year), Information Resources Press, 2100 M Street N.W., Suite 316, Washington, D.C., 20037 (1977-). 

This regular publication contains abstracts of United States impact statements.

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The electronic version of this publication has been prepared at
the M S Swaminathan Research Foundation, Chennai, India.